The history of the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre is an inseparable part of music education in Lithuania. Professional musical development in the country began during the regime time of Lithuania's great duke Vytautas Magnus, when in 1397 a school of chant was formed at Vilnius Cathedral. Publication of song books started in the 16th century. Some hymns were included in the first book that was published in the Lithuanian language – “Katekizmas” by Martynas Mažvydas (1547). In 1667 Žygimantas Liauksminas published a primer of Gregorian chant „Ars et praxis musicae.” Some music schools – “bursos” had been formed during the 16th – 17th centuries where singing and instrumentation for ecclesiastic orchestras was taught. Private music schools were established in Vilnius, Kaunas and other towns at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1919 composer Juozas Naujalis founded the music school of Kaunas. This school was acknowledged as a school of higher education and in 1933 was reorganised into the Conservatoire of Kaunas. 1933 is therefore considered to be the founding year of the current Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre. In 1949 the Conservatoire of Kaunas and the Conservatoire of Vilnius (founded in 1945) were merged into the Lithuanian State Conservatoire. In 1992 the Conservatoire was renamed into the Lithuanian Academy of Music (LMA), and in 2004 – the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre (LMTA).